अंतरिक्ष में ग्रहों के चक्कर लगाने वाले सेटेलाइट : जानिए क्या होता है सेटेलाइट और यह कैसे काम करता है

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Know about satellite

आधुनिकीकरण के इस युग में सभी लोग एक देश से दूसरे देश में फोन पर बातचीत करतें हैं, टीवी पर तरह-तरह के प्रोग्राम देखतें हैं। इसके अलावा वैज्ञानिक भी कई दिन पहले ही कई हफ्तों के मौसम का हाल बता देते हैं। यह सब सेटेलाइट के माध्यम से होता है। लेकिन कभी हम यह जानने की कोशिश नहीं करते हैं कि आखिर यह सेटेलाइट क्या है और काम कैसे करता है?

आज हम इस आर्टिकल के माध्यम से आपकों सेटेलाइट के बारे में जानकारी देंगे, जिससे आप समझ सकेंगे कि उपर्युक्त सभी काम कैसे होते हैं।

क्या है सेटेलाइट

सेटेलाइट वह होता है जो अपने से बड़े ग्रहों के चारों ओर चक्कर लगाता है। दूसरे शब्दों में यह सौरमंडल में पृथ्वी और अन्य ग्रहों की परिक्रमा करता है। इसका हमारी जिंदगी में बहुत बड़ा योगदान है।

Know about satellite

सेटेलाइट के प्रकार

सेटेलाइट दो प्रकार के होते हैं पहला कृत्रिम उपग्रह (Artificial Satellite) और दूसरा प्राकृतिक उपग्रह (Natural Satellite)। मानव द्वारा निर्मित उपग्रह को कृत्रिम उपग्रह कहा जाता है। जबकी अंतरिक्ष में होने वाले अलग-अलग प्रोसेस की वजह से बनने वाले सेटेलाइट को प्राकृतिक उपग्रह कहते हैं। उदाहरण के लिए चांद।

जानकारी के लिए बता दें कि हमारे सौरमंडल में बहुत अधिक उपग्रह मौजूद हैं, और लगभग हर ग्रह के पास अपना एक चांद है अर्थात सेटेलाइट है। सौरमंडल में शनि ग्रह के पास लगभग 82 नेचुरल सैटेलाइट (चांद) है जो सबसे अधिक है।

Know about satellite

अंतरिक्ष में भेजी गई मानव द्वारा निर्मित पहली सेटेलाइट

Sputnik 1 अंतरिक्ष में मानव द्वारा निर्मित भेजी गई पहली सेटेलाइट थी, जिसे रूस द्वारा 4 अक्तूबर 1857 को लॉन्च किया गया था। जब सेटेलाइट को अंतरिक्ष में लांच किया गया था, तो उसके पहले अमेरिका ने भी एक बार कोशिश की थी परंतु वह असफल रहा है। रूस ने अंतरिक्ष में पाली सेटेलाइट भेज कर इतिहास रच दिया। इस सैटेलाइट का आकार एक फुटबॉल की तरह था। हालांकि 3 नवंबर 1957 को रूस ने एक और सैटेलाइट लॉन्च की जिसमें लाइका नामक एक फीमेल डॉग मौजूद थी।

Know about satellite
मानव द्वारा निर्मित सबसे बड़ी सेटेलाइट

पृथ्वी के और बीच में मौजूद सबसे बड़ी आर्टिफिशियल सैटेलाइट का नाम “इंटरनेशनल स्पेस स्टेशन” है, जिसे बनाने में लगभग 10 वर्षों का समय लगा था और इसमें कई देशों ने अपनी रिसर्च और फंडिंग दी थी। यह 1998 से वर्ष 2011 के बीच में निर्मित किया गया था। इसके बारे में कहा जाता है कि साल 2024 के बाद यह काम नहीं करेगा।

सेटेलाइट के ऑर्बिट को ध्यान में रखकर लॉन्च किया जाता है उपग्रह

पृथ्वी के ऑर्बिट में लगभग 5 लाख आर्टिफिशियल सैटेलाइट (Artificial Satellite) मौजूद हैं। अधिक मात्रा में होने के कारण इन्हें आपस में टकराने का खतरा भी बढ़ जाता है हालांकि जब भी किसी सेटेलाइट को लांच किया जाता है, तो इन सभी सेटेलाइट के ऑर्बिट को ध्यान में रखकर लॉन्च किया जाता है और इसे इस तरह से नियंत्रित किया जाता है कि यह किसी और सेटेलाइट से जाकर न टकराएं।

सेटेलाइट का आपस में टकराने से खतरा

सैटेलाइट जब आपस में टकराते हैं, तो उनके द्वारा किए गए छोटे-छोटे पार्टिकल्स अन्य सेटेलाइट को भी नुकसान पहुंचाते हैं, और उन्हें क्रैश होने पर मजबूर कर सकते हैं।

वर्ष 2007 में सबसे ज्यादा सेटेलाइट के टकराव का कारण चाइना का एंटी सेटेलाइट मिशन था, जिसने पृथ्वी के कक्ष में काफी ज्यादा मात्रा में कूड़ा फैला दिया, जिसकी वजह से वर्ष 2013 में रसिया की 1 सैटेलाइट टूट गई। वर्ष 2013 में दो और सेटेलाइट Iridium 33 और कॉसमॉस 2251 भी आपस में टकरा गई। इससे अर्थ के ऑर्बिट में एक बड़ा-सा मालवा (Debris) का बादल बन गया।

Know about satellite

सेटेलाइट क्या काम करता है

हमारे धरती उपग्रह का सबसे बड़ा काम कम्युनिकेशन और नेविगेशन का होता है। टेलीविजन पर चलने वाले टीवी प्रोग्राम, सीरियल, मूवी आदि सब सेटेलाइट के माध्यम से ही चलते हैं। ग्लोबल पोजिशनिंग सिस्टम (GPS) सेटेलाइट एक बहुत बड़े नेटवर्क की वजह से काम करता है। यह अलग-अलग लोकेशन के डाटा को इकट्ठा करके एक रियल टाइम मैप तैयार बनती है। पृथ्वी के बाहर जो भी चीज होती है उसका टाइम पृथ्वी के अंदर के टाइम से बिल्कुल अलग होता है। इसीलिए जीपीएस वाली सेटेलाइट को बार-बार रिपेयर करने की जरूरत पड़ती है, ताकि समय और लोकेशन में अधिक का अंतर न हो।

भारत का पहला सेटेलाइट

सेटेलाइट (Satellite) के सबसे अधिक इस्तेमाल ग्रहों पर नजर रखने और खोजबीन करने के लिए किया जाता है। जानकारी के लिए बता दें कि भारत की पहली आर्टिफिशियल सेटेलाइट (Artificial Satellite) का नाम आर्यभट्ट था, जो फेमस मैथमेटिशियन आर्यभट्ट के नाम पर रखा गया था।

Know about satellite

वेदर रिपोर्ट (Weather Report) में होता है सेटेलाइट का इस्तेमाल

सेटेलाइट का इस्तेमाल वेदर रिपोर्ट बनाने में भी किया जाता है सेटेलाइट के माध्यम से पृथ्वी पर मौजूद हर प्रकार के हवा का डाटा वैज्ञानिकों के पास जाता है। उसके बाद जब पूरी पृथ्वी के डाटा को आपस में मिलाने पर यह जानकारी मिलती है कि, अर्थ के किस क्षेत्र में कैसा मौसम आनेवाला है।

कहीं से भी किया जा सके इंटरनेट एक्सेस, इसके लिए हो रही है तैयारी

दुनिया के विश्व के सबसे अमीर इंसान एलॉन मस्क और जेफ बेजॉस भी सेटेलाइट सिस्टम बना रहे हैं। एलन मस्क की कंपनी जिसका नाम स्टार लिंक है, वह अर्थ के ऑर्बिट में एक ऐसा नेटवर्क भेजना चाहती है। जिससे कहीं भी इंटरेनट को एक्सेस किया जा सके। इस सर्विस को चालू करने के लिए सबसे पहले एलन मस्क पृथ्वी के ऑर्बिट में 12000 सेटेलाइट भेजेंगे। उसके बाद जैसे-जैसे टेक्नोलॉज़ी आगे बढ़ेगी वैसे-वैसे लगभग 42 हजार सेटेलाइट और भेजे जाएंगे।

Know about satellite

टेक्नोलॉज़ी के पीछे एलन मस्क का ऊद्देश्य

इस टेक्नोलॉजी के पीछे एलन मस्क का उद्देश्य है कि, पृथ्वी के उन हिस्सों में भी नेटवर्क एक्सेस किया जा सके जहां अभी भी नेटवर्क एक्सेस नहीं किया जाता है। उदाहरण के लिए रेगिस्तान के बीच में नेटवर्क एक्सेस ने किया जा सकता है। ऐसे में यदि अर्थ के ऑर्बिट में नेटवर्क होगा तो किसी भी रेगिस्तान या जंगल में नेटवर्क एक्सेस किया जा सकेगा।

करना होगा टेक्नोलॉज़ी डेवलप

ऐसा कहा जाता है कि पृथ्वी के ऑर्बिट में इतने सारे सेटेलाइट (Satellite) भेजने के बाद ऑर्बिट और भी अधिक भर जाएगा। इसके लिए एक ऐसा टेक्नोलॉजी डिवेलप करना पड़ेगा, जो पृथ्वी के कक्षा से सारे बेकार सेटेलाइट्स को इकट्ठा करके पृथ्वी से बाहर लेकर आए या फ़िर उन्हें इस प्रकार से नष्ट करे कि वह दोबारा से पृथ्वी के ऑर्बिट में न जा सके। -Know about satellite.

सेटेलाइट के बारे में यह थी हमारी जानकारी। यदि आपकों सेटेलाइट से जुड़ा यह आर्टिकल अच्छा लगा हो तो शेयर अवश्य करे।

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